The order for the commencement of the operation was issued on Tuesday by the Inspector-General of Police, Mr Solomon Arase.
It is coming days after several bomb attacks in different cities in north-east, north-west and north-central Nigeria.
In a statement by a spokesman for the Police, Abayomi Shogunle, the force enjoined Nigerians to bear with the Nigeria Police Force during the security operation.
According the statement, the operation is a temporary measure put in place to address intelligence information received by the police.
The police had before now ordered an end to roadblocks across Nigeria and it reiterated that the operation was not a plan to bring them back.
“The special security measure is in no way a return of roadblocks. Any unprofessional conduct should be reported at www.stopthebribes.net or nearest Police Station,” the statement stressed.
The police also urged Nigerians to provide answers to questions that may be asked as well as allowing their vehicles to be searched.